Historical Perspective

Gaius Octavius
(Emperor Augustus)
Rome according to legend was founded by a feral child called, Romulus. He was one of two brothers, according to Roman lore, who along with his brother Remus was raised by a she-wolf. He had killed his brother to become Rome's first King, This colorful tale, while not based on much fact, points to the aggressiveness and ambition that would characterize the Roman Empire. From its founding in 753 B.C. along the Tiber river as a small village by a band of rustic Latins, they were on a 1000 year road towards greatness. Rome grew steadily due to its proximity to a port and because of its fertile agricultural lands. At first Rome was ruled by a monarchy for the first 200 years of its existence, but they would eventually tire of being ruled by their Etruscan overlords, who had asserted themselves into the Roman Monarchy as Rome became prosperous, and in 509 B.C. drove them out of Rome. They established a Republican form of government. Within the next 500 years of Republican government managed to unify the entire Italian Peninsula under its reign. They would also go on to conquer much of the ancient Mediterranean superpowers. However, it was not completely smooth sailing for the Romans. During this time, they had been subject to invasions by various barbarian peoples, as well as, the Carthaginians who would become their archenemy. However, the Romans inevitably prevailed against all comers. From the Carthaginians, Rome's greatest enemy, they exacted the annihilation of this once powerful seafaring nation. From the Greeks, they would gain culture and science, indeed fluency in Greek was a sign of proper and upper class upbringing in Roman society. From the Egyptians, they gained the vast agricultural resources of the Nile, and naturally the lands of all these conquered peoples, indeed the people themselves as slaves for the Empire. The Romans would elect a dictator or Caesar as they were called by the Romans, in its times of need to defend Rome. So it was inevitable that ambitious Romans would seek to secure this position for themselves permanently. The first Emperor of Rome would be Gaius Octavius in 27 B.C. He would usher in the period of Imperial Rome. Rome's greatest export was the idea of Rome itself, almost everyone wanted to be Roman for what it represented and what they could gain from it. The might and territory of Rome would continue to expand during the Imperial period, but it would also cause the Empire to be split into two, the Eastern and Western Roman Empire. This was caused by the large distances that defensive forces needed to secure due to Rome's large frontier, and because of re-emerging conflicts between Rome and its barbarian neighbors. Indeed, one of these barbarian peoples, the Germans, would inflict the greatest wounds ever to be suffered by the mighty Roman Empire. They would eventually seize the mantle of Empire and indeed adopt its royal titles from the Romans. The German title of Kaiser, and the Russian title of Czar were both derived from the Roman title of Caesar.

Rome while initially persecuting the Christian faith, would however become its greatest Champion. By the end of the Roman Empire, Rome would make Christianity its state religion and establish the papacy in the Western Roman Empire. However, after 476 A.D. the birthplace of the Roman Empire in the Italian Peninsula would be largely under foreign control. While continuing to leverage its position as the center of the Catholic Christian faith to remain relevant. This period would mark the end of the Roman Empire as a coherent whole. Much of Italy would remain under foreign rule until the modern era. The Eastern Roman Empire, which was more Greek then Roman, however would continue for another 1000 years after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. But it too would fall when it was overcome by Muslim invaders in the 15th Century.

While the Roman Empire had been over for more then fifteen centuries, the vestiges of its empire in the form of religion, and the memories of its glorious past would continue to effect and inspire many great nations that was to follow. It would also experience a period of cultural revival during the Renaissance, and lift Europe out of the Dark Ages. While never regaining its former stature as a superpower, it would still eventually emerge as a center of culture and style in the present day.

The Italian peninsula was first inhabited by what we would consider modern humans during the Bronze age around 1500 B.C., these people were warlike nomadic herdsmen. They displaced the previous stone age peoples to form what would be the numerous Italic tribes such as the Sabines, Umbrians, and Latins. Between 900 B.C. and 700 B.C., Greek and Etruscan settlers also began to establish colonies along the Italian penninsula, who brought the seeds of civilization into the area. The Greeks primarily in the south and Etruscans mostly in the northern part. The Etruscans were believed to have originated from Asia Minor, and used an alphabet based on the Greek alphabet. Legend has it that they were refugees from the Trojan War. As the Etruscans developed into a series of city-states they came to dominate the various Italic tribes. They would influence the Romans greatly in the beginning.

Rome was founded in 753 B.C. along the southern banks of the Tiber River, in the Italian Penninsula. The fledgling town grew steadily into a Kingdom and prosperity, aided by its proximity to an important port, and access to natural resources. The Roman system of government was based on a Monarch who held absolute power, but candidates for this position was by the approval of the Senate who were chosen from among clan leaders. The Senate was also responsible for judging whether the Monarch followed established tribal traditions. Society also began to become stratified into two main classes, the Patricians and the Plebians. The wealth and power were mostly concentrated to the Patricians, and the only class allowed to serve on the Senate. The Plebians were mostly responsible for working the lands of the wealthy Patricians. However, they had an assembly who were responsible for casting votes on which candidate would become Monarch, and speaking for the people. Rome's expanding power during this period however also caught the attention of the Etruscans, who would take over the Monarchy of Rome in order to keep them in check. The Romans greatly resented this, so when an Etruscan prince raped the wife of a Patrician. The Romans rose up in revolt.

Statue of the Legendary Founders of Rome
Remus and Romulus nursed by a She-wolf

Scipio Africanus

In 509 B.C. the Etruscan Monarchy was overthrown, ushering in the Republican period of Roman history. This period of Roman history saw great changes in the social and political order. The concept of Roman citizenship was established and ordinary people were able to achieve political power. However, this period was also wrought with conflicts. It began against other Latins and Greek colonists, with the unification of the Italian penninsula under Roman rule. They also had to defend themselves from Gallic invaders, and the Carthaginian Empire.

The Carthaginians would become Rome's greatest enemy as conflicting colonial interests brought them in a series of wars known as the Punic Wars, which eventually saw the annihilation of the Carthaginian Empire and Rome emerging as a world power. It began with the First Punic War (264 B.C. to 241 B.C.) which began as a territorial dispute between Rome and Carthage over Sicily. The Roman's had originally signed a treaty with Carthage to acknowledge their dominion over the Island. However things began to unravel when a band of Mamertines pirates who were of Italian origin had set up a colony in Sicily. The Syracusans, who was of Greek origin, in southeastern Sicily was tired of their raids on the countryside and on shipping and decided to attack them, and use the opportunity to take over the rest of the Island. So these Mamertines, decided to appeal to Rome for help in defending them against the Syracusans. But Rome was hesitant to help them, partly because it felt it improper to support what was virtually a robber-state, and partly because it feared war with a great sea power, and because interference would be a breach of the Carthaginian-Roman treaty. So the Mamertines appealed to the Carthaginians for help, which they did in fact answered, and convinced the Syracusans to back down. However, a faction of the Mamertines, did not want the Carthaginians occupying Sicily and again sent for Roman help but this time to remove the Carthaginians. This time the Romans did come to their aid, since Rome was becoming the de facto guardian of all things Italian as they unified the mainland. This action brought two powerful nations at odds with each other, and resulted in the defeat of the Carthaginian fleet, and Rome getting a foothold on both Sicily and Sardinia.

The Second Punic War (218 B.C. to 201 B.C.) began when Hannibal mounted his famous invasion of Italy over the Pyrenees. In battle after battle, he defeated the Romans on the field. His strategy at Cannae, which entailed brilliant cavalry tactics is counted as one of the most noteworthy in history. However he lacked the support he need to take Rome outright, and had to settle for raiding the country side in hopes the Romans would meet him on the field. However, in a stroke of daring, the Romans under the command of Scipio Africanus, landed a force on the Carthaginian homeland. This forced Hannibal to withdraw from Italy and return home. Hannibal's forces outnumbered the Roman's but when they met at Zama he offered peace terms so that Carthage would not be risked. Scipio refused, knowing that his Numidian allies would join him. Hannibal attempted to repeat his tactics at Cannae, but this time, the Romans had superior men and cavalry, against his green recruits. Hannibal was defeated, forcing Carthage to cede all of its colonial possessions and the surrender of its war fleet to Rome. Hannibal fled to the Selucid Greek Empire, and the Romans pursued him. Using the excuse that the Greeks were harboring an enemy of Rome and had aided him in invading Rome, they now also made war on the Macedonians. The Macedonian phalanx while deadly, was no match for the tactics now employed by the Romans.

The legion was the basic unit of Rome's standing army. The legionaires that was part of this army were career soldiers serving for a period of twenty years, and trained constantly in the art of warfare. A legion roughly consisted of 6000 men. The smallest sub-division of men consisted of 8 men accompanied by a pack horse, called a tent-group. Ten tent-groups formed a century,, which each commanded by a non-commission officer called a Centurion. Six of centuries are grouped in three pairs to form a cohort. Ten cohorts would form a legion. Above these were officers of various rank, with a general command one or more legions for a specific campaign. The legionaires fought primarily as infantry. However, a complete legion would also be accompanied by cavalry, seige weapons, logistical and supply personel, and irregular auxilliary troops such as archers and slingers.

Roman Legionaries

The legion was uniquely equiped and for a variety of fighting situations. A legionary's equipment was a short sword called the Gladius, a dagger, two pilums (a special form of a javelin) that could be used to hurl at the enemy or ward off cavalry. For defense, the legionaries wore a metal helmet and carried a large retangular shield that was slighly curved to surround the soldiers body. Behind this he wore either a kind of banded plate armour called the lorica segmentata, a chainmail jacket, or a jacket made of metal scales. The Roman's fought in a group called a maniple, that formed a front that looked like a checker board. Each maniple was capable of rearranging themselves to form a variety of formations, like the tortoise, wedge or refuse (v-shaped) to deal with different situations. This organization allowed the Romans to reinforce tiring troops with the offset maniples, yet presentating a continuous front to the enemy. It also had the advantage of being able to maneuver much more coherently and flexibly on the battlefield.

The Third Punic war (149 B.C. to 146 B.C.), was the killing blow to the Carthaginians. The Numidians were encroaching on Carthaginian territory, so they declared war on the Numidians, who were Roman allies. Using the excuse that the Carthaginians were in material breach of the peace terms of the last war. Scipio returned to Carthage, and raised the city to the ground, and sold the inhabitants into slavery. By the end of the last Punic war, the Romans had also managed to place the Greek territories under Roman control. Roman rule now extended over Spain, northern Africa, Greece, Asia Minor and Egypt.


Gaius Julius Caesar
The next century, saw Rome shift from republicanism to a dictatorial regime, and further expansion of the Roman Empire into Gaul (modern day France). As was the practice in the past, whenever Rome was threatened, a dictator was elected to deal with the problem. Towards the end of the Republican era of Roman history, movements of Germanic tribes into Gaul, caused various Gauls to in turn make incursions into Roman territory, like they had done when in the 4th Century B.C. Although by then southern France and the Gallic tribes there had already been incorporated into the Roman Empire. To deal with this problem, Julius Caesar was elected governor with proconsular imperium, which meant he had absolute dictatorial power, over the Gallic territories. In 8 years of campaigning, he managed to eventually put the entire area of modern France, and eastwards up to the Rhine, under Roman control. His final victory over the Gauls were at Alesia in 52 B.C., where he simultaneous fought a siege against the leader of a united Gallic federation, Vercingatorix who had holed up in a heavily defended Fortress, and a relief column of fierce warriors sent to relief the besieged Gallic leader. He had gained many honors for his conquests, but throughout his life he also made many political enemies. When his work was done in Gaul, with his military rivals defeated in battle, he was called upon by the Senate to disband his army. He refused and instead marched into Rome, and forced the Senate to appoint him dictator for life. Conspirators in 44 B.C would assassinate him. However, This act effectively ended the Republican era of Rome. His death ushered in ten years of civil war between Gaius Octavius, Caesar's grandnephew and adopted son, and Mark Anthony, Caesar's chief lieutenant. Octavius was eventually victorious, when he defeated Mark Anthony and his Egyptian allies in the battle of Actium in 31 B.C.

In 27 B.C. Gaius Octavius became Rome's first Emperor, and took the title Augustus, meaning the exalted or holy one. The Roman's were grateful for his victory, and was tired of the civil war. It is ironic that in resisting Caesar's desire for unlimited power, they now gladly bestowed it on another. However, his rule brought in a period call "Pax Romana" or Roman peace that would last the next few centuries. It is even more ironic because in the early days of the republic by the example set by Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus. He was the model of Roman civic duty, when he was called to hold the title of dictator to defend Rome from a neighboring tribe, he promptly relinquished his titles and returned to his life as a farmer after he had won the battle. This irony was played out in that they accepted one dictator for another but hardly surprising. Julius Caesar's power base was with the populous party which were opposed by the Optimus party which were conservative but were the traditional power brokers. Octavius was also much wiser in the way he gained power, he stealthy collected titles and offices that gave him virtual dictatorial power under the guise of Republican government, while Julius Caesar seized it by military means. His rule over the Roman Empire was the first true unification of ancient Italy culturally, politically, and economically. While the Roman Empire prospered under Octavius's rule, Rome also suffered one of its most serious military defeats. Rome in order to stem the flow of yet more German tribes into Roman territory, governor Quinctilius Varus was assigned to defend the border. Instead, on march to their winter camp, the Germans ambushed the Roman forces in the Tuetoburg forest, resulting in the virtual annihilation of three full legions and its complements.

After Octavius' death, a line of rulers known as the Julio-Claudian Emperors took power. None lived up to the Octavius' level of neither competence nor popularity. In fact two of the most notable despots to ever rule over the Roman Empire came from this line. In that of Caligula, who murdered Senators and seized their property and wives for his own, and Nero, who had blamed a city-wide fire on the Christians bringing in a long period of Christian persecution. Vespasian who ruled from 69 A.D. to 79 A.D. finally ended the rule of the Julio-Claudians to usher in the Flavian dynasty. His rule was marked by his economic thriftiness that restored the fortunes of Rome after the years of Nero's. He was also the Emperor that was responsible for the siege on the Jewish fortress of Masada, where Zealots resorted to suicide rather then to surrender to the Romans.

Battle of Zama
by Brian Palmer

After the Flavian dynasty, came the Antonine Emperors. These were the so-called five great emperors of Rome. It began in 96 A.D. with Emperor Nerva. During this time imperial power was past not by hereditary means but by adoption of a successor. His choice for his successor was Trajan who ruled from 98 A.D. to 117 A.D. He was a distinguished soldier and became one of Rome's most loved monarchs. He was the first emperor of Spanish origin, and extended the Roman Empire into Eastern Europe (modern day Romania), and into Mesopotamia. He had a genuine concern for the welfare of the citizens of the Empire, initiating many civic and building projects to improve the lives of his subjects. He treated senators as equals and was bestowed the title Optimus Princeps (Best of Emperors). His cousin, Hadrian who ruled from 117 A, D to 138 A.D, succeeded him. while he was not as popular within the Senatorial ranks, he administered the Empire well. His most famous building project would be known as Hadrian's Wall, which stretched 117 km (73 miles) across northern England. Separating the "unruly" Scottish tribes from Romanized Britannia. He was succeeded by Antonius Pius who rules from 138 A.D. to 161 A.D., his rule was marked by a long period of peace. However this prolonged peace caused troubles for his successor, Marcus Aurelius. While he was a humane and good leader, his reign was dominated by war against the German tribes who had began to become restless again and looked to the Roman Empire for plunder and territory. But by 180 A.D. with the death of Emperor Marcus Aurelius, the Roman Empire began its decline. Rome was under civil war again, and barbarian invasions became more frequent, with various military dictators seizing control but never lasting more then for short periods. Emperor Diocletian finally ended this in 284 A.D. when he was forced to restructure the Empire, and divided it into two parts, and moving the seat of power to modern day Turkey. The Rise of Christianity within the Empire also began when Emperor Constantine converts to Christianity, becoming the state religion by 380 A.D. He would also reunite the Empire once again in 324 A.D. However, Emperor Theodosius would be the last to rule over a unified Roman Empire until his death in 395 A.D.

Roman Legions in Formation
Photo of Historical Re-enactors

Roman Cavalry and Legions
by Chris Collingwood

In 445 A.D. a Pope was appointed by Emperor Valentinian III to hold jurisdiction over the religious hierarchy in the western Roman Empire. This had the effect of creating what would become independent states that were loyal to the Pope, so-called papal states, rather then the distant Eastern Roman Emperor. In 410 A.D. the Visigoths and their German allies managed to sack Rome itself. The Empire now proved incapable of protecting its people, and tried to increase taxes in order to bolster its waning power. Combined with the barbarian invasions, the citizens of Rome fled the cities seeking protection from these foreigners and Imperial Tax collectors alike within highly fortified and self-sufficient private estates own by various landlords in the country side. Then in 476 A.D. Odovacar, the leader of the Germans marched into Rome and crowned himself the King of Rome, marking the formal end to the Western Roman Empire. In 527 A.D. Justinian, Roman Emperor in the East would reconquer much of the territory lost during the period of barbarian rule in the Western Empire. However, this was not to last when after his death, another Germanic tribe known as the Lombards invades Italy. Dividing the control of the Peninsula into three regions, the other two being ruled by the vestiges of the Eastern Roman Empire and the Papal States.
With the decline of the Eastern Roman Empire, by 728 A.D the Lombards would seized total control of the Italian Peninsula. But by then many had converted to Roman Catholicism, and adopted the Latin language. In 774 A.D. the Lombards were expelled by the Franks, another Germanic tribe, who would establish the Holy Roman Empire. The following century would be marked by conflicts between the Byzantine Empire and the Franks, giving the Saracens a chance to make inroads into Sicily, and southern Italy. When the Carolingian dynasty collapsed, the Byzantines under the Macedonian dynasty returned Eastern Roman Influence back into the Italian penninsula briefly. The German King, Otto the First, was invited by the Pope in 962 A.D. to re-establish the Holy Roman Empire. His rule in the Italian penninsula lasted until 1000 A.D. However, various German rulers would adopt the name Holy Roman Emperor until 1804 A.D. as a means of legitimizing their rule within their homeland.

During the 11th Century A.D. various Italian cities began to assert their autonomy. Milan, Genoa, Venice, Florence, and Pisa, became powerful and independent city-states. In the Southern parts of Italy, the Normans expelled the Saracens and Byzantines, and then in Sicily, establishing the Kingdom of Sicily in 1130 A.D. During the next century, Pope Alexander III and the Northern City-states, formed the Lombard League in order to resists the German Emperor Frederick the First to re-impose Imperial rule over the Italian Peninsula. However, one of his successors, Frederick II, managed to seize Norman Sicily, thus causing the Pope to request help from France to expel the Germans from Sicily. The French managed to do this and imposed feudalism upon Naples, in the south of Italy and in the Island of Sicily. This system of government was highly unpopular, resulting revolts caused the separation of the Island of Sicily to establish its own Kingdom. However by the 15th century both Naples and Sicily became under the rule of the Spanish.

It was also during this time, that the famous Venetian adventurer-merchant turned adviser to an Emperor, Marco Polo made his fabled journey to Mongol China. When he finally returned to Venice from China, he was Captured and jailed by the rival Italian city-state of Genoa. While in prison, he dictated his adventures to his prison mate. His recollections of the wonders and riches of China were so fantastical that there is even controversy today if any of it was true. On his deathbed, he was question about the veracity of his tales to which he replied "I have not told you the half of what I had experienced because I knew that you would not believe me."

Emperor Trajan

Leonardo Da Vinci
During the 14th century, both the Papacy and the German Holy Roman Empire turned their attention away from Italy. The papacy wanted to assert more influence on France, and thus relocated to Avignon in Southern France, while the Germans dealt with internal power struggles. This persisted for much of the century.

This however opened up Italy to great intellectual and cultural revivals. The Italians began to rediscover the writing of the ancient Greeks and Latins. This period would be known as the Italian Renaissance. Prominent families like The Visconti, Sforza, Medici and Easte came to fore to rule the various city-states. While these powerful families subverted the political process, they were instrumental in advancing the cultural and civic life of Renaissance Italy. For example, Florence under the Medici's became the most important center of art in Italy. The Italian Renaissance was felt not only in Italy but also throughout Europe. During the next two centuries, reviving the cultural life in Europe and putting the Dark Ages firmly in the past. Two of the most notable men who were responsible for this revival were Leonardo Da Vinci and Michelangelo. Da Vinci was a painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and scientist, who envisioned the helicopter and the tank centuries before its time. Michelangelo, was a sculptor, architect, painter, and poet, who painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel among his numerous masterpieces.

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni
However the growing city-states eventually came into conflict with one another. Frequent wars brought into Italy many Mercenaries, known as Condottieri, to fight these wars between these bitter rivals. It was inevitable that this infighting, eventually invited foreign powers to intervene. So in 1494 A.D. Charles VII of France invaded Italy marking a period from which Italy would be under foreign rule until the 19th century. Various regions in Italy would achieve independence during this period but Italy would no longer play a central role in European politics until the modern era.

Spain and Austria would come to control much of the Italian penninsula under the Habsburg Dynasty, until Nationalist movements started by Giuseppe Mazzini during the middle of the 19th century set Italy on the road to independence. Count Camillo di Cavour, prime minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia during this time persuaded Napoleon III of France, to declare war on the Austrians in 1859 A.D. The French forced the Austrian to surrender control of Northern Italy with the exception of Venice to France. They in turn transferred the sovereignty of this captured territory to the Sardinians, in exchange for territory that was closer to France. However the French remained in the Papal States in central Italy at the request of the Pope. The Sardinians would go on to conquer Southern Italy, and the Island of Sicily in 1860 A.D., and then by siding with the Prussians in 1870 A.D. regained Venice from the Austrians. The Papal states had wanted to remain independent from the unification conquests of the Sardinians, but when the French withdrew after the Franco-Prussian war, The Sardinians marched into Rome without opposition. In 1871 A.D. Italy was re-unified under Italian rule with its Capitol once again as Rome.

The transition to the modern era was not a smooth one however. Italy during this period was saddled with large economic and social problems. In addition, the papacy did not recognize the Italian state, and crime was rampant. Despite all of this, Italy did manage to make some progress, and even managed to seize Libya from the Turks. They entered the First World War on the side of the Allies, with the promise that they would gain additional territory that they considered to be yet "un-liberated Italy". However at the end of the war they received far less then what they were expecting from the Allies. This created popular Nationalistic resentment of the Allies, and the Italian government who made this deal with them. The post war economic depression combined with these feeling gave fertile ground for Benito Mussolini to found the Fascist party in 1919 A.D. With shrewd political manipulation, and the help of his "Black Shirt Squads" to intimidate the population, he would be able to force King Victor Emmanuel III, to give him the prime minister position in 1922 A.D., and within four more years the title of dictator. Fascist Italy then began a period of aggression, invading and taking over Ethiopia, and then supporting the fascist along with Hitler in the Spanish Civil War in 1936 A.D. Mussolini had firmly allied himself with the Axis powers. This would prove to be his undoing however. By 1943 A.D. the Allies managed to invade Italy and the Mussolini was forced to flee. The Italians switched sides and joined the Allies. Italian partisans eventually caught up with Mussolini and executed him. After the war, with American financial aid, Italy was able to recover and rebuild quickly. The monarchy was abolished and a republican form of government was established. While there were periods of social unrest and political scandals, the next 50 years saw great economic growth in Italy. Italy is now a member of NATO, member of the European Union, and considered a center of culture and style around the World.

The Colloseum

Overall Strategy for Players Using Rome

Legion, Centurion, and Trumpeter
The player using the Roman civ in Rise of Nations is equipped with better fortifications, and act more on holding one's borders. The only other reliable way to push one's borders is through cities, which is limited to a maximum number so it can only go so far. So it would serve the player well to anchor their nation with these forts and tower in as many places as possible, and research one's border and attrition techs as much as possible to take full advantage of its effects. Enemies will doubly be under the effect of attrition and defensive building fire. This should be advantageous in both defense, as well as offense if one wishes to border push on an enemy.

Their power of gaining two free heavy infantry for every barrack built will be good for an offensive minded player. They should piggyback on this bonus whenever possible, especially in the middle of the game when you have accumulated a lot of resources. So when you have extra timber, plop down a barrack! The Roman gets a unique heavy infantry unit that is superior to others so this power will serve them very well. However, this may open you up to be predictable, and opponents may try to build counters for your heavy infantry. But no worries, just assume that they are, you get your troops free anyway, so just use the saved resources to build counters for their counters. Archers counter heavy infantry, so as soon as you get your free heavy infantry, produce some light infantry to counter their archers. Combined arms and diversity is always good. If you're really rich, of course you can build stables and cavalry units to counter them, but unless necessary, just save it for later. Of course, one should try to keep and eye on their pop cap research to make sure they have room for their free troops.

Rome as modelled in Rise of Nations

Unique units

  • Heavy Infantry Line
Legion (Classical Age)
beats other heavy infantry units.

Caesar's Legion (Medieval Age)

Praetorian Guard (Gunpowder Age)

Unique powers (The Power of Caesar)

  • Forts, Towers built 25% cheaper
  • Forts exert +3 bonus on national borders
  • Heavy Infantry created 10% cheaper
  • Cities gather +15 wealth
  • Receive free heavy infantry every time a New barrack is built
    1 at start, 2 with Gunpowder Age plus 3 Military Research,
    3 with Industrial Age plus 5 military research

Written By: One Dead Angel


LEGVI.F.F.C, Forum Romanum,, World Civilizations: Rome,, University of Alabama,